Write a commentary in English of the following excerpt from V. Woolf’s To the Lighthouse (Chapter 3, Part 3).

Write a commentary in English of the following excerpt from V. Woolf’s To the Lighthouse (Chapter 3, Part 3).

So they’re gone, she thought, sighing with relief and disappointment. Her sympathy seemed to be cast back on her, like a bramble sprung across her face. She felt curiously divided, as if one part of her were drawn out there — it was a still day, hazy; the Lighthouse looked this morning at an immense distance; the other had fixed itself doggedly, solidly, here on the lawn. She saw her canvas as if it had floated up and placed itself white and uncompromising directly before her. It seemed to rebuke her with its cold stare for all this hurry and agitation; this folly and waste of emotion; it drastically recalled her and spread through her mind first a peace,as her disorderly sensations (he had gone and she had been so sorry for him and she had said nothing) trooped
off the field; and then, emptiness. She looked blankly at the canvas, with its uncompromising white stare; from the canvas to the garden. There was something (she stood screwing up her little Chinese eyes in her small puckered face), something she remembered in the relations of those lines cutting across, slicing down, and in the mass of the hedge with its green cave of blues and browns, which had stayed in her mind; which had tied a knot in her mind so that at odds and ends of time, involuntarily, as she walked along the Brompton
Road, as she brushed her hair, she found herself painting that picture, passing her eye over it, and untying the knot in imagination. But there was all the difference in the world between this planning airily away from the canvas and actually taking her brush and making the first mark.

she had taken the wrong brush in her agitation at Mr. Ramsay’s presence, and her easel, rammed into the earth so nervously, was at the wrong angle. And now that she had put that right, and in so doing had subdued the impertinences and irrelevances that plucked her attention and made her remember how she was such and such a person, had such and such relations to people, she took her hand and raised her brush. For a moment it stayed trembling in a painful but exciting ecstasy in the air. Where to begin? — that was the question at what point to make the first mark? One line placed on the canvas committed her to innumerable risks, to frequent and irrevocable decisions. All that in idea seemed simple became in practice immediately complex; as the waves shape themselves symmetrically from the cliff top, but to the swimmer among them are divided by steep gulfs, and foaming crests. Still the risk must be run; the mark made.

With a curious physical sensation, as if she were urged forward and at the same time must hold herself back, she made her first quick decisive stroke. The brush descended. It flickered brown over the white canvas; it left a running mark. A second time she did it — a third time. And so pausing and so flickering, she attained a dancing rhythmical movement, as if the pauses were one part of the rhythm and the strokes another, and all were related; and so, lightly and swiftly pausing, striking, she scored her canvas with brown running nervous lines which had no sooner settled there than they enclosed ( she felt it looming out at her) a space.

Human Biology

Human Biology

Discipline: Biology

Type of service: Case Study

Spacing: Double spacing

Paper format: MLA

Number of pages: 4 pages

Number of sources: 3 sources

Paper details:

Human Biology


Mr Ojomu is a 42 year male of African origin. He has a demanding desk-based job and frequently has to work long hours. He rarely eats regular meals and so has developed a habit of snacking on foods with high salt, fat and sugar contents. He routinely drinks at least 4 cups of coffee a day and at least one bottle of coca cola. Recently he has noticed that he has put on weight and easily gets out of breath when walking, he feels tired on waking, often suffers muscular aches and pains and experiences bouts of anxiety over his workload.

  1. a) (500 words)

Using four of the systems from the list below, explain what steps Mr Ojomu should take to improve his overall physical and mental health. Include in your answer how the body systems you have selected work together to normalise body functions.

Human body systems

  • The endocrine system
  • The nervous system
  • The digestive system
  • The cardio-vascular system
  • The respiratory system
  • The urinary system
  • The lymphatic and immune system
  1. b) (300 words)

Selecting two of the remaining body systems you did not include in your answer to (a) demonstrate through the production of annotated diagrams and a short explanation your understanding of the structure and function of these systems in maintaining human health. Your diagrams should be hand-drawn and you should clearly identify and accurately reference the original sources of the diagrams.

TASK 2 (300 words)

Miss Smith is a 17 year old female who is studying for her A Levels at Sixth Form College and has a part time job at the local supermarket in the evenings. Miss Smith smokes cigarettes and has recently given up participating in netball citing work demands leaving her no time for her sport. She is underweight for her height and her diet consists largely of carbohydrates and proteins with very little fats, fruit or vegetables. She travels by bus and tube daily to get from home to school and work.

Using the template below complete the table to explain three different types of disease Miss Smith is at risk of developing. Ensure you give examples for the effects on Miss Smith’s health if she develops each type of disease. If your table expands over two pages make sure the headings appear on each page.

Type of disease                Name of disease              Why Miss Smith is at risk               What effects the disease would have on Miss Smith






Benchmark Assignment – Community Care Application: Communication and Group Dynamics

Benchmark Assignment – Community Care Application: Communication and Group Dynamics

Type of document           Essay

Number of pages 2

Subject area       Management

Academic Level Undergraduate

Style      APA

Number of references  1

Order description:

Access the “Allied Health Community”media and select “Scenarios” to access the scenarios for this course. Review the instructions and legend information. Read the Community Care Scenario for this course and complete the following assignment:

Write an action plan detailing how the group dynamics and communication between group members can be improved. Include the following:

1.Identify three major events that occurred that caused this meeting be considered ineffective.

2.What meeting guidelines, methods, or best practices can be implemented to create a more effective meeting? (Consider what could have been implemented prior to the meeting, at the beginning of the meeting, during the meeting, and at the end of the meeting.)

3.Describe communication processes that can improve group dynamics and meeting effectiveness.

4.Describe how this group can be structured differently to clarify roles and responsibilities. Describe strategies that can be implemented to improve the group dynamics.

5.Evaluate each group using the Stages of Group Development discussed in chapter 16 in your textbook. Using this information, describe how these stages can be applied in this situation.


APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.





Subject Area: Academic Level
  Nursing   Undergraduate


Number of Pages:
2 Pages Single Spaced (approx 550 words per page)  


Writing Style: Number of sources/references
APA   5


Effects of Aging on Cognitive Development

Effects of Aging on Cognitive Development

Type of document           Essay

Number of pages 3

Subject area       Psychology

Academic Level Master

Style      APA

Number of /references                1

Order description:

To the writer:

I will Attach the instruction

I can not download the reference on the school site but the author is “Anderson, J.R. (2010). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications (7th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers” Just search the actual reference.

Please be careful with the grammar and spelling.

The transition is needed from the introduction to a conclusion is connected to each other

APA, please.

Create a news release for your community to discuss the effects of aging on cognitive development. Your article should be 750 to 1,000 words. Address the following:


  • Evaluate the effects of aging on cognitive development.
  • Provide two examples of scholarly research that support the points in your news release.

Submit your assignment for plagiarism review under the Center for Writing Excellence tab.  Please attach a copy  of your results.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

Flash Fiction Definition and Example

Flash Fiction Definition and Example

Paper details:

  1. Write 1,500-2,000 words (6-8 pages) about what qualities you think that all great fiction possesses, using correct MLA format, 8th edition.
  2. Quote from AT LEAST FOUR of the literary works we discussed, listing them as examples of what good writers should or should not do.
  3. After you support your thesis about what qualities all great fiction possesses, introduce a sample of your own writing: a flash fiction story. Share with your readers how easy or difficult it was for you to embody in that story all the qualities that you think a great literary work has.

Flash Fiction Definition and Example


Flash fiction is very short, usually not more than one or two pages. A writer tells a story with a beginning, middle and end with an economy of words. It’s not easy to write flash fiction, and it’s especially challenging to write flash fiction that is not more than 300 words in length. But let’s see what you can do, all right? Include a flash fiction story in your paper that is not more than 300 words.


Blank and Perfect  (300 Words Without Title)

Nuala Lincke-Ivic

She’s blank and perfect: a tabula rasa and young-and-pretty. How can he resist her? He can stamp her with his opinions and kiss her lips that have known no other man, make her breathe hard just by playing with her hair with one hand, curling it round his fist as they sit at the café table. He gets to be omnipotent with her, a god. At least until she wises up, gets the little bit of mileage on her that he will give her. Wakes up and smells the coffee: He’s nothing special; all men can do to her what he does to her. All men want to do what he does to her.

The older woman watching the older man and the woman-child tightens her lips, a thin line, as she stares at the pair and thinks. She’s not sure if she’s envious of or sorry for the woman-child. Once she had been that girl. Until she wised up, of course, woke up and smelled the coffee. And he stopped being her god. But for that little time, almost a year, when he had been her god…she had loved him, loved him with that kind of blind, unquestioning adoration that a small child feels for a parent. And it had been rapturous.

She muses. Could she ever go back to that happy dream; being as she once was? No. Because you cannot stop the march of time. Nobody can. And everybody has feet of clay.

But as he slides his fingers down the girl’s hair, one-handed, she can see how the girl’s breath catches in her throat, and for one moment she is that girl again; she is bright and shiny and new, and her whole world is his eyes, warm and still upon her.

Suggested Structure: What Qualities Does a Great Literary Work Possess?

  1. Start with your thesis that addresses these questions:

What is “good writing”: the kind of poem, story, play, novel or screenplay that you like and think is worth reading? Should it be meaningful for the reader, relevant to his or her life–and should it be engaging, an interesting read? And … should it forge an emotional connection with the reader?

  1. Write a map paragraph in which you provide author names/titles of our literary works that you will discuss in your essay to explain what good writing is/is not.
  2. Discuss and quote from the works in the order in which you presented them in your map–and in the process, support your thesis. (You will want to use more than one paragraph in this part of your paper. Build transitions between the paragraphs. And make sure you don’t make the reader wade through a longgg paragraph that is densely packed with information and quotations, and therefore difficult to follow. Feed your thoughts to readers in bite-size pieces, okay?)
  3. Via a short transition paragraph, introduce a piece of your own writing–a flash fiction story.
  4. Add your flash fiction story.
  5. Create a question/answer transition after your story that indicates you want to discuss how easy or difficult it is to write great fiction. Example: Now … was it easy for me to write the kind of literary work that I find aesthetically worthy–or “great”?
  6. Discuss how easy or difficult it was for you to embody in your flash fiction story all the qualities that you think a great literary work has. Conclude with your ideas about what is required for a writer to produce a great work of fiction: not just talent and technical skills–but inspiration? What do YOU think?
  7. Create a Works Cited for all the literary works you quote and also your own flash fiction story.

Advanced Pathophysiology week 3 PAIN

Advanced Pathophysiology week 3 PAIN

Type of document           Essay

Number of pages 2

Subject area         Nursing

Academic Level Master

Style      APA       Number of sources/references 4

Order description:

Post a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain

Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain

Please make sure to address all things and put headings also use some of the resources below as references thanks

Week 3: Neurological System

In the previous weeks, you began to explore the pathophysiology of disorders and compensatory mechanisms. Throughout the remainder of the course, you consider the pathophysiology of disorders specific to the various body systems. You begin with the neurological system because, through nerve stimulation, this system affects every other system and function in the body. Since the scope of the neurological system is so broad, it relates to various disorders, many of which can also be tied to other systems. Consider an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient presenting with loss of movement in the limbs, severe pain, and difficulty breathing. While the root of these alterations is a neurological disorder, respiratory alterations will also occur. There is often an absence of a clear distinction between body systems and related disorders.


Although you will likely evaluate patients presenting with neurological disorders that range from ALS to seizures and dementia, persistent pain is one of the major complaints in clinical settings. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to find the trigger of the pain to properly diagnose and treat patients. This week you examine types of pain, as well as patient factors that impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pain.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Compare types of pain

Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of pain

Evaluate the impact of patient factors on the diagnosis and prescription of treatment of pain

Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to the neurological system

Photo Credit: haydenbird/E+/Getty Images

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Chapter 13, “Structure and Function of the Neurologic System”

This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system. It also explains the importance of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.

Chapter 14, “Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function”

This chapter covers the role of pain, sleep, stress, and the senses on body functions. It also explores alterations involving pain, sleep, stress, and the senses.

Chapter 15, “Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function”

This chapter explores disorders of cognitive systems, neuromotor function, tone, movement, and motor performance. It also examines factors that impact these disorders as well as clinical manifestations.

Chapter 16, “Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neuromuscular Junction”



This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Tumors of the central nervous system are also covered.

Chapter 17, “Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children”

This chapter focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of neurologic disorders and brain tumors in children. Normal growth and development is also examined.

Hammer, G. G. , & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine. (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 7, “Nervous System Disorders”

This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system to lay a foundation for exploring nervous system disorders. It then examines several nervous system disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke.

Chapter 12, “Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla”

This chapter examines disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal medulla. It classifies disorders by the organ or tissue that is most impacted by the disorder. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, symptoms, and signs of the disorders are also covered.

Chapter 19, “Disorders of the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland”

This chapter covers the structure and function of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. It also explores disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

Chapter 21, “Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex”

This chapter begins by exploring the structure and function of the adrenal cortex. It then explores disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal cortex.

Required Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012f). The neurological system. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines the pathophysiology of the neurological system and associated alterations.

Optional Resources

Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/


National Multiple Sclerosis Society. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/index.aspx

National Parkinson Foundation. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.parkinson.org/

Discussion: Pain

The neurological system affects all parts and functions of the body through nerve stimulation. Nerves also control the sensation and perception of pain. While pain can be described in a variety of ways, it is essentially labeled according to its duration and source. As an advanced practice nurse evaluating a patient, you need to consider the following questions: Does the pain quickly come and go, or is it persistent and ongoing? Does the pain arise at the source of injury or in another location? In this Discussion, you compare three common types of pain—acute, chronic, and referred.

wAllah in Arabic

wAllah in Arabic

Discipline: Linguistics

Type of service: Proofreading

Spacing: Double spacing

Paper format: Harvard

Number of pages: 13 pages

Number of sources: 0 source

Paper details:

There are Excerpt 1 and 2 for spoken data please don’t review it. It is about 500 word or more, also please check my refrence list it is not organized at all.

Swearing can be used as a Listener Response in Spoken Arabic

Conversation Analysis methods to investigate common uses of wAllah  in Spoken Arabic                   

Allah expressions overview

Among Arabic language teaching strategies, there is no other way to not introduce Islam that is because, they have been tightened together since the birth of Islam (Sai, 2017).  Allah lexicon is a clear example of this language Islamisation. The invocation of Allah is a cultural phenomenon which is common to Arabic-speaking peoples, and that references to Allah in spoken Arabic do not necessarily contain an inherent religious meaning. Language not only to deliver meanings. It is all about actions (Drew, 2009). To illustrate this, the lexical meaning of Arabic phrase Bismillah is “to start in the name of Allah ‘God’. Gamal (2012) argues, this phrase loses its actual meaning in cultural aspects. For instance, Bismillah is used to express sympathies with another person facing any issue. People pronounce Bismillah when a person falls down just to intimate an expression of association and realization. According to Shora (2009), Inshallah, like Bismillah is a phrase, which is generally used by Arab-speakers –regardless of their religion– and Muslims in the world on different events. The literal meaning and purpose of Inshallah, as denoted by Clift and Helani (2010) is to express the hopes for future, which are dependent on the mercy and decree of Allah. Hence, it is believed that nothing is possible without the will of God. The will of God is considered to supersede all human will and wants that they develop in their lives. It is a cultural term that is widely used amongst the people with a hope to express the dependence on the sovereignty of Allah (God). Rountree (2016) demonstrated that similar expression exists in Maltese (Jekk Alla jrid), which also means that if Allah wills it.

The list of Allah lexicon and its purposes is very long to be presented in an essay. Among all of the expressions I found swearing phrases are very interesting and the best way to present them, is through the communicative strategies found in conversation analysis (CA). The reason behind my interest, is that all other Allah-lexicons have pragmatic meaning so, it is not a hard task for non-native to expect the meaning from the context. However, with swearing expressions there is no pragmatic meaning to relay on. WAllah  are Arabic expression which structured syntactically by combination between a clitic w and the name of Allah that gives ‘by-God’. Arab grammarians explain, it is a clitic not an affix because, linguistically speaking, if a linguistic unit attached to a stem, is parsed, this unit is identified as a clitic (Alotaiby et al., 2010).

WAllah means “I promise or swear by God”. It is used to make an oath in important events and institutional setting like court hall. Moreover, they are considered the highest level of swearing and it is a sin among Muslims to say it while someone is lying (Abdalla, 2018).

Hawever, Wallah/Wallahi (وَٱللّٰه/وَٱللّٰهِ), “By God/my God”, has different uses among Arab. In fact, it is heard many times during daily interaction. Arabic-speakers people hardly complete a turn without using it Gilsenan (1983). One of non-swearing alternative use of wAllah can be identified in CA that it is act like  listener responses (more about this in section two) which I can say, is equal to “Really?”, “Is that so?” in spoken Arabic[1].

The oaths are used by Arabic-speakers falls into three categories: Judiciary, which are declarations for law purposes in the court halls, marriage and national loyalties; Promises, which are used between individuals to give promises, warns to certain action, and conversational oaths which are used routinely as a part of interaction without commitments or promises to do things (Abd el-Jawad , 2000, p.218).


In my essay I am going to investigate two contrast questions as the following:

  • Does the use of swearing by God as purely religious notion have different conversational sequence?
  • Does the use of swearing by God as listener response have different conversational sequence?

To find answer to these question CA tools such as ‘turn-taking’ is used. In CA turn-taking is, the way of organization that participants take their turns to bring down interruptions and awkward silences and pass exchanges smoothly in conversation. Many scholars in CA drew an attention to the importance of the listener role (Schegloff, 1982; Jefferson, 1984; Goodwin, 1981; Heritage, 1984; Sacks, 1992). They studied natural conversations to provide mechanisms of turn taking system and ways of investigation the sequential order rather than searching for linguistic rules.

My data is selected from hours of naturally occurring (or so called mundane conversation) Arabic conversations. The source is U-Now live chat, and it is recorded and uploaded already on YouTube. I transcribed it according to Gail Jefferson’s method.


Section 1: Swearing as a purely religious notion sequence…

According to Cambridge dictionary (2015) swear as a verb mean “to promise or say firmly that you are telling the truth or that you will do something or behave in a particular way”. According to  Andersson & . Following the same sense ‘swearing by God’ is, “the speech act by which a person binds himself to do or not to do a certain specific physical or juridical act, by invoking the name of God or one of the divine attributes” (Abd el-Jawad, 2000, p.218). Halliday & Hasan (1976) state that, according to Arabic grammarians, to swear in Arabic the swearing expression always sentence initially position. Peled (‏2000) comments, it is like a conditional sentence where another sentence should be placed before or after in order to join them to get the meaning, However, swearing expression can stand alone if someone else rather than the speaker asked him/her to swear.

To extend this to my CA investigation, in examine wAllah as purely religious notion. under two conditions. Firstly, it should be in initial poison of the ‘turn-constructional unit’ (TCU) . Both TCUs of wAllah sentence and the conditional sentence can be investigated be recognizing their ‘transition relevance place’ (TRP). To clarify what I mean, TCU can be defined as: the basic speech segment in a conversation. It refers to a piece of conversation which may be understood as an entire turn. Thus, TRP is the end of this unit which marks a point where the floor or the right to speak (called in CA the turn) may give to another speaker, or the same speaker may hold on the floor with another TCU (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson 1974). There are three criteria in which a TCU can be constituted by: falling intonation, completed pragmatically, and/or completed syntactically.

Secondly, there should be other contextual evidences in the sequence, because there might be other use of wAallh to start the turn with (it is frequently at the beginning of the sentence in the most of uses). So, if the speaker who is swearing, He should explain why or comment on his statement.


In the following excerpt, I as a native speaker can judge the turn and the action in lines (9 and 10) as a pure religion reference, however, I need to apply CA methodologies to test conditions above.

Excerpt 1:[2]

(Ayman (Ay) is from Jordon. He is using U-Now to contact with his fiance Anoud (An). She is half Saudi and half Jordanian, and she is studying in USA. They were talking about how her mother stopped some guys who keeping following here (Best Maram (2018, 00:07:25).)


1  An:      esmaʕ lyoom    rħt    ʕljamʕa

Listen   today   I went  to the university

Listen! Today I went to university

2           ↑esmaʕ <bs     amr>    eshabab tnzel              rashah       eeh

listen Just  I passed the guys   she downs    her head

            Listen the guys look down just as I passed

3   Ay:    =Aha homa mʕ        homa mʕk        bljamʕa= ((biting his nails))

Aha they   with you thay with you  at the university

            Aha they are studying with you

4   An:     =Aah £fee    menhm             mahm kano wagfeen      mʕI           bljamʕa£(.)

Yes   there  some of them, they    were stand-them  with me  at the university

            Yes some of them, they annoyed me in university. 

05  Ay:     Khleehm        ytrbo  ((biting his nails))

Leave them   she-raised-them

            They deserved it. She taught them a lesson.

06  An :    =YALLAH    yayman       ano   mama  ʕmltli             tyeet

My God   my Ayman   it is   Mum    she-did-me  famous

See my Ayman, Mom made us famous

07          ibn      klbh

Son of a female dog


08          £bljamʕa           ,   wla ħda           ystrji ytṭlaʕ       ʕ:li£

in the university  no  of them   can-he  look-he  at me

            in university. None of them can even look.

09  Ay: a → <WALLAHI>  btabʕna       khalti  khokha  khalto khawla    btabʕna ?

By my God    is watching-us  aunt-me khokha  my-aunt khawla is watching-us ?

            WALLAHI is aunt Khokha , (I mean) is aunt khawla watching us ?

10      b → <WALLAHI alʕḍeem>         enha   yʕni  AS:SD (.)  <WALLAHI>   [bme:et   rajul

By-my-God almighty      she is  PRT  a lion      By-my-God   as-100  men

WLLAHI almighty she is a lion. WALLAHI (she is) as hundred men. 

11  An:                                                                   [ʕn jd sss

[from serious

I agree (with you)

12  Ay:      >wlk  hneyalk<          [hek   yʕmi

How  lucky-you           yeah uncle-me

             How lucky you (are) yeah. She (was) like a master

13  An:                            [ħasytha <akhoy illy> raħ……

[ like-her my brother …

             She was like my brother

(Talk continues regarding Anoud’s mother and brother personalities)


To be in the same page, Excerpt (1) is talking about how Anoud’s mother stood for her daughter and stopped some guys in her neighborhood, who were also studying with her and the incident remined her with another one where her brother did the same.

In line (9) Ayman started his turn with wAllah to emphasis his full understanding to the new news. The first pair part (FPP) of the adjacency pair here by Ayman that, is a conversational unit where two related turns are exchanged between two speakers (FPP) and a second pair part (SPP), so, he needs to clarify why he is swearing because he (the speaker) proceeds to swear.

As I explained previously, wAllah, as a pure swearing by God, occurs in an initial position of the sentence. It should occur not only as a preface, as in line (9), but it should also match the second condition as promising, waring action, or conditional statement to do or tell the truth that end up with uncompleted swearing project. in line (10), where it is followed by emphasis alʕḍeem, (and thus upgrading and emphatic). There is also, a justification in the next TCU because the swearing turn doesn’t serve a complete meaning yet until the speaker clear why to swear. To compare, in line (9), where swearing is embedded in a more extended turn line (10), Ayman, interrupted himself (btabʕna khalti  khokha ?) (see arrows at a). This interrupted question helped Ayman to reach the full interactional swearing project in the next TCUs (see arrows at b).

To focus on wAllah deployment in the context presented here: that wAllah as a purely religious notion leads to topic transition. In line (13) the current interactional episode closed after two turns and they started new topic. What wAllah did here is that talk about to the incident is, ended soon after wAllah turn, and discussion about another Anoud’s family member personality is opened. Thus, this serves the purpose of swearing that nothing would be discussed after someone pronounce the name of God to swear and, the only thing that next speaker can do is to agree (see line 11) where Anoud completely supported Ayman opinion after he swore ʕn jd which is basically SPP of swearing turn.


Section 2: common use of wAllah  sequence investigation…

Trudgill (1992) it is, “language use in which expressions refer to something that is taboo and / or stigmatized in culture, or that it should not be interpreted literally or that it can be used to express strong emotions or attitudes”. It worth to mention here, this kind of curses or social swearing, in Arabic, is never associated with Allah name as it still represents holy spiritual aspects. Yet it is used in many other uses, but not for curses or impoliteness[3]. My aim in this section is to investigate wAllah under this respect. In other word, wAllah may appear in a sequence as a listener response according to CA methods.

Listener response is an aspect of turn-taking that can be defined as, what the listener comments without intending to take the turn. It is worth to mention; the listener can produce responses as good listening hood signs. These signs base on their intentions, interests, and understandings .However, they are not freely produced, they are more welcomed at certain times during the conversation determined by what and how the previous turn has been said. Schegloff (1982) states that when non-primary speaker responses ignored, then an essential part of the naturally occurring interactivity between the parties is left uncovered.

Duncan (1974) included turns such as “I see” and “right” to the scope of listener responses from just vocalizations items such as “Uh huh,” and “Oh.”. He also included body gestures like nodding as well.

Yet from literature review I realized that there is disagreement about the terminology of this kind of responses and for each point of view there are a list of functions that it is depended on.

For instance, some scholars terms them as; ‘a continuer’ that for a present speaker is still holding the turn (Schegloff, 1982; Young & Miller, 2004), ‘a minimal response’ to show once good listenership (Zimmerman & West, 1975; Maltz & Borker, 1982; Holmes, 1997 ;Young & Miller, 2004), ‘an agreement mark’ shows that both listener and speaker share same view (Hirschman, 1994), ‘an acknowledgment’ in respect to a listener pays attention to speaker words (Jefferson, 1984; Sinclair & Coulthard, 1975) , ‘a news marker’ marks to show that what speaker saying is new information (Heritage, 1984; Gardner, 2001), and many other terminologies. For this reason, I will use ‘listener responses’ thus, it is a border term that cover all functions.

Arabic scholars studied listener responses in felids such as Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis, Phonology, and CA. The major of them characterized it as ‘Back-Channel’ (Ward & Al Bayyari, 2007, 2006). Hafez (1991), argued that, the semantic and pragmatic functions of ‘back-channels’ in Spoken Arabic aren’t different to those seen in other languages.

To sum up the conditions of it in CA, it should be produced by listener in the first place, occurs in TRP, reacting to speaker turn basically without intentions to take the floor, and it is not the second pair part of ‘an adjacency pair’ that is, a conversational unit where two related turns are exchanged between two speakers. In the next excerpt I am going to apply CA methodologies to test conditions above. Other common uses of wAllah can be heard in the video and the transcribed sequences here as well but, is only to focus on is a listener response use (see the arrow c).


Excerpt 2:

(Nareen (N) is a Kuwaiti blogger. She is using U-Now to contact with her fans and family. Mahmoud (M) is one of her relatives and they were chatting about his coming summer trip around Europe (younow famous broadcasters (2017, 00:03:32).)


1  N:       KHEDNII  mʕaak?   [khednnii mʕaak?   MHMO:UD ?=

Take-me with-you take-me with-you mhmoud

I wanna go with you Mhmoud

02  M: c →                    [>↑wAllah< tʕi

By God come-you

                               WAllah yeah

03  N:      = eli     emt  ~ْ[ħjْezt?

tell-me   when   book-you

            Tell me when you have booked

04  M:      wa:allah rah sho:of ʕndi  shḡli btʕrvi   mkgi ana:a= ((playing with his hair))

By God   go  see   have-me thing you-know my-mind I

            WAllah let me decide (but) you know my mood

            shlon Lama atlʕ [shḡli    aw shi

How   If   jop  activity or thing

             How I (might) have responsibilities

05  N: c →                   [umm



06  M:        faa rah     jarba  eda sarit rah  elek     btsser  inshallah…..

PRT I-going try-it if  well  I-go speak    with-you God-willing

I will discover it (trip) if I like it we are going together inshallah

(Talk continues regarding the trip expenses)


In the first and third lines, Nareen was exited abut Mahmoud’s trip, she started her turn with request to travel with him and she asked for when he booked. During her turn Mahmoud gave her kind of acknowledgment that he is paying an attention and he said wAllah tʕi (see arrow c). Nareen continued her FPP with opened request that needed an answer from Mamhoud. In line (4) he responded with dis-preferred answer after wallah. Heritage (2015,2017), argued this kind of use with ‘well + dis-preferred answer turn’ also he extened his work to other languages.

My focus her in wAllah that between the adjacency pair (see line (2) arrow c). It is occures in TRP between two TSUs . The first TSU in line (1) KHEDNII  mʕaak? khednnii mʕaak? MHMO:UD ? and the second one is in line (3) eli     emt  ~ْ[ħjْezt? That is because each one is completed in syntactic and pragmatic meaning. Moreovre, Mahmoud was not responding to Nareen’s request nor attending to take the floor from the previous speaker. Hafez (1991), realizes from his Arabic data that listener responses (back-channel in his study) is clearer when followed by TCU of saliently different speaking style —such as: less energy, breathy voice, or creaky voice. Back to excerpt 2 (line (3) eli     emt  ~ْ[ħjْezt?  is the following TCU and it is significantly less energy than KHEDNII  mʕaak? khednnii mʕaak? MHMO:UD ? Which is the TCU that comes before wAllah.



In this essay I studied two instantiations of wAllah that can be distinct respectfully by their position in the turn, and the actions being undertaken. In section one the use was swearing to say the truth, and in section two it is used as a listen response. Still many uses need to be investigated and in someday identified.


Possamai, A., Turner, B.S., Roose, J.M., Dagistanli, S. and Voyce, M., 2016. ” Shari’a” in Cyberspace. A Case Study from Australia. Sociologica, 10(1), pp.0-0.

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Jamjoom, M.I., 2010. Female Islamic studies teachers in Saudi Arabia: A phenomenological study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), pp.547-558.

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Sai, Y., 2017. “Arabic is Not my Language…”: Debates over Teaching of Arabic in Irish Muslim Schools. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 37(4), pp.442-453.

King, D.A., 1974. The Astrological History of Māshāʾallāh.

Rountree, K., 2016. Crafting contemporary Pagan identities in a Catholic society. Routledge.

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Gamal, A., 2012. Postcolonial Translation as Transformation: Ahdaf Soueif’s I Think of You. The Translator, 18(1), pp.101-118.

Ricci, R., 2012. Citing as a site: Translation and circulation in Muslim South and Southeast Asia. Modern Asian Studies, 46(2), pp.331-353.

Roeber, A.G. and Harvey, P.B., 2011. “God Willing”: Really? A Note on the Ambiguities of an Interfaith Expression. Neophilologus, 95(3), pp.373-378.

Clift, R. and Helani, F., 2010. Inshallah: Religious invocations in Arabic topic transition. Language in Society, 39(3), pp.357-382.

Alotaiby, F., Foda, S. and Alkharashi, I. (2010). Clitics in Arabic language: a statistical study. Proceedings of Paci!c Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, 24, 595–602.

Peled. 2009 = Y. Peled. Sentence types and word-order patterns in written Arabic: Medieval and modern perspectives. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Best Maramt, 2018. Words That Seem Related, But Aren’t. [online video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUl8_XBXDsk&t=496s

younow famous broadcasters, 2017. Narins-beauty with -Bitar. [online video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsZqltIJjoM

Button, Graham. 1987. “Moving out of closings”. In G. Button and J. Lee (eds.) Talk and Social Organization, 101-151. Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Pomerantz, Anne. 1984. “Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: Some features of preferred/dispreferred turn shapes.” In J. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.) Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, 57-101. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sacks, Harvey. 1987. “On the preferences for agreement and contiguity in sequences in conversation.” In Button & Lee (eds.), Talk and Social Organization, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 54-69.

Sacks, Harvey. 1992. Lectures on conversation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Sacks, Harvey, Emanuel A. Schegloff and Gail Jefferson. 1974. “A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation.” Language 50(4): 696-735

Schegloff, Emanuel A. 2007. Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schegloff, Emanuel and Harvey Sacks.1973. “Opening up closings.” Semiotica 8(4): 290-327.

Ward N G, Al Bayyari Y (2006) A Case Study in the Identification of Prosodic Cues to Turn-Taking: Back-Channeling in Arabic. in Proc. Interspeech 2006.

Ward N G, Al Bayyari Y (2007) A Prosodic Feature that Invites Back-Channels in Egyptian Arab

Clift, R., & Raymond, C. W. (2018). Actions in practice: On details in collections. Discourse Studies, 20(1), 90–119.

Heritage, John. (2015). Well-prefaced turns in English conversation: A conversation analytic perspective. Journal of Pragmatics, 88, 88-104.

Heritage, John, & Sorjonen, Marja-Leena (eds.). (2017). At the Intersection of Turn and Sequence: Turn-Initial Particles Across Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jefferson, G. (1984). Notes on a systematic deployment of the acknowledgement tokens ’yeah’ and ’mm hm.’ Papers in Linguistics, 17(2), 197-216.

Jefferson, G. (1993). Caveat speaker: Preliminary notes on receipt topic-shift implicature. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26(1), 1-30).

Kendon, A. (1967). Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction. Acta Psychologica, 26, 22-47.

Maynard, S. (1997). Analyzing interactional management in native/non-native English conversation: A case of listener response. IRAL 35(1), 37-60.

Abboud, Peter F. (1988). Speech and religious affiliation in Egypt. In Mohammad Ali Jazayery and Walter Winter (eds.), Languages & cultures: Studies in honour of Edgar C. Polomé, 21–27. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Al-Khalil, Talal (2005). Discourse markers in Syrian Arabic: A study of hallá, ya’ni, tayyeb, and lakan. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Essex, UK.

Al-Khatib, Mahmoud (1997). Congratulation and thank you announcements in Jordanian newspapers: Cultural and communicative functions. Language, Culture and Curriculum 10(2):156–70. ——— (2001). The pragmatics of letter-writing. World Englishes 20(2):179–200.

Button, Graham (1990). On varieties of closings. In George Psathas (ed.), Interaction competence, 93– 147. Washington: University Press of America.

Castleton, Barbara (2006). Frequency and function of religiously-based expressions. In J. A. Morrow (ed.), Arabic, Islam and the Allah lexicon: How language shapes our conception of God, 71–115. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press

Feghali, Ellen (1997). Arab cultural communication patterns. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 21(3):345–78. Ferguson,

Charles A. (1983). God-wishes in Syrian Arabic. Mediterranean Language Review 1:65–83.

Gilsenan, Michael (1983). Recognizing Islam: Religion and society in the modern Arab world.

Pantheon. Goodwin, Charles and Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1987). Concurrent operations on talk: Notes on the interactive organization of assessments. IPrA Papers in Pragmatics 1:1–55.

Helani, Fadi (2008). The topic transition sequence and the management of topic change in mundane Arabic conversation. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Essex, UK.

Maynard, Douglas W. (1980). Placement of topic changes in conversation. Semiotica 30:263–90.

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Piamenta, Moshe (1979). Islam in everyday Arabic speech. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ——— (1983). The Muslim conception of God and human welfare: As reflected in everyday Arabic speech. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

[1] Hebrew has this kind of use as well(Brown ,2007).

[2] I inserted links to each letter not exist in English

[3] It occurs n impolite turns sometimes but Allah name and exexpression never refers to such meaning.

Mental Health Integration in Humanitarian Settings

Mental Health Integration in Humanitarian Settings

Discipline: Psychology

Type of service: Research Paper

Spacing: Double spacing

Paper format: APA

Number of pages: 40 pages

Number of sources: 40 sources

Paper details:

check the attached report the revise the paper

Please Carry out a literature review in accordance with the below outline, and utilizing papers that are specific to *humanitarian settings * low and middle income countries * mental health integration * 85% of references need to be articles published in the last 5 years.

Section One: Mental Health in Humanitarian Crises

1.1. Why is it Important?

1.2. Projected Rates of Mental Disorder after Disasters

1.3. Effects on Daily Functioning

1.4. Effects on National Health Services and Systems

Section details. This section will detail the WHO estimates of mental and neurological disorders, and the higher risk for developing mental health problems in humanitarian emergencies. The section will further explore effects of mental disorders on affected communities, and the strain on fragile national health services and systems in low and middle-income countries, that are unable to meet the mental health needs of local and displaced populations.

Section Two: Available Resources for Mental Health Care in Low and Middle-Income Countries

2.1. Mental Health Policy and Plans

2.2. Mental health services

2.3. Community resources

2.4. Human resources

2.5. Financial resources

Section details. This section will discuss the general availability of mental health policies and resources for the provision of mental health care in low and middle-income countries affected by humanitarian crisis.

Section Three: Disproportionate Access to Mental Health Care

3.1. Socioeconomic status

3.2. Stigma and discrimination

3.3. Human rights

Section details. This section will explore the inequitable distribution of mental health care between countries, between regions, and within communities, linked to socioeconomic deprivation, stigma, and human rights violations.

Section Four: Closing the Treatment Gap

4.1. Importance of mental health integration into general health care

4.2. Resources to design and implement integrated mental health services

Section details. This section will detail WHO’s recommendation for mental health integration within general healthcare systems for closing the mental health treatment gap in low and middle-income countries and provide an overview of existing resources available to humanitarian actors, government and donor agencies for designing and implementing mental health services.


Section Five: Scaling Up Integrated Mental Health Programs in Humanitarian Settings

5.1. Ineffective processes for mental health integration

5.2. Planning and assessment as part of MH Integration into general healthcare in humanitarian settings

5.3. Capacity building as part of MH Integration into general healthcare in humanitarian settings

5.4. Strengthening mental health services and systems as part of MH Integration into general healthcare in humanitarian settings

5.5. Cross cutting areas for mental health service planning and implementation: Advocacy, networking, coordination, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation.

Section details. This section will provide an overview of efforts for mental health integration within general healthcare in humanitarian settings, and the field level challenges across steps for mental health integration, including planning and assessment, capacity building, strengthening mental health services and systems, and other cross cutting areas comprising advocacy, networking, coordination, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation.

NOTE: Each section of the review should have an introduction, presentation of the evidence, and conclusions.

An intro to each section: Provide the aim and scope of your discussion. What is the intent of this section of the review? Provide the context for your discussion. Narrow your focus to provide a logical and thorough discussion. Your intent should be clear. What are the key elements, issues, or challenges that serve as a foundation for your academic discourse? Based on the context provided, what are the two or three discussion points you will present? Clearly establish your approach to this section of the literature review.

The body of each section: A. Assert your first topic or discussion point. This should be highlighted in your introduction above. Provide context for this topic. B. Present the supporting evidence from the current literature. One approach is a compare type of discussion where you use information from different researchers.

The conclusion of each section: articulate or draw conclusions based on the evidence presented.

Preliminary List of References for Literature Review

Asare, J., & Jones, L. (2005). Tackling mental health in Sierra Leone. British Medical Journal, 331(7519), 720–0. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7519.720-b

Bartolucci, A. A., & Hillegass, W. B. (2010). Overview, strengths, and limitations of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence-based practice: Toward optimizing clinical outcomes, 17-33. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-05025-1_2

Creswell, J.W. (2013). Research design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 13-9781452226101

Davis, M. M., Howk, S., Spurlock, M., McGinnis, P. B., Cohen, D. J., & Fagnan, L. J. (2017). A qualitative study of clinic and community member perspectives on intervention toolkits: Unless the toolkit is used it won’t help solve the problem. BMC health services research, 17(1), 497. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-2413-y

Dua, T. et al. (2011). Evidence-based guidelines for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in low-and middle-income countries: Summary of WHO recommendations. PLoS Medicine, 8(11). doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001122

Hijazi, Z., Weissbecker, I., & Chammay, R. (2011). The integration of mental health into primary health care in Lebanon. Intervention, 9(3), 265-278.

International Medical Corps (2016). Mental health integration into general health care: A step-wise approach. Retrieved from https://internationalmedicalcorps.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Mental-Health-Integration-in-General-Health-Care-03222016-small.pdf

Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings (2007). IASC guidelines on mental health and psychosocial support in emergency settings. Geneva: IASC.

Jordans, M. J. D., & Tol, W. A. (2012). Mental health in humanitarian settings: Shifting focus to care systems. International Health, 5(1), 9–10. doi:10.1093/inthealth/ihs005

Keynejad, R. C., Dua, T., Barbui, C., & Thornicroft, G. (2017). WHO mental health gap action programme (mhGAP) intervention guide: A systematic review of evidence from low and middle-income countries. Evidence Based Mental Health, 21(1), 30–34. doi:10.1136/eb-2017-102750

Mendenhall, E., De Silva, M. J., Hanlon, C., Petersen, I., Shidhaye, R., Jordans, M., … Lund, C. (2014). Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Stakeholder perceptions from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Social Science & Medicine, 118, 33–42. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.07.057

Padmanathan, P., & De Silva, M. J. (2013). The acceptability and feasibility of task-sharing for mental healthcare in low and middle income countries: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 97, 82–86. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.08.004

Patel, V. (2009). The future of psychiatry in low- and middle-income countries. Psychological Medicine, 39(11), 1759. doi:10.1017/s0033291709005224

Rose, S., Bisson, J., Churchill, R., & Wessely, S. (2009). Psychological debriefing for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd000560

Sabah et. al. (2011). Integrating mental health into primary health care in Iraq. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 8(1), 39-49.

Thornicroft, G., Chatterji, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Gruber, M., Sampson, N., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., … Kessler, R. C. (2017). Undertreatment of people with major depressive disorder in 21 countries. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210(02), 119–124. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.116.188078

Tol, W. A., Barbui, C., Galappatti, A., Silove, D., Betancourt, T. S., Souza, R., … van Ommeren, M. (2011). Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research. The Lancet, 378(9802), 1581–1591. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61094-5

Whiteford, H. A., Ferrari, A. J., Degenhardt, L., Feigin, V., & Vos, T. (2015). The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: An analysis from the global burden of disease study 2010. PLoS One. 10(2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116820

World Health Organization and World Organization of Family Doctors (2008). Integrating mental health into primary care: A global perspective. WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 156368 0

World Health Organization (2008). The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/en/index.html

World Health Organization (2008). Scaling up care for mental, neurological and substance use disorders: Mental health gap action program. WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 159620 6

World Health Organization (2016). Mental health gap action programme (mhGAP): Intervention guide for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in non-specialized health settings, version 2.0. WHO Library, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 154979 0

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2012). Assessing mental health and psychosocial needs and resources: Toolkit for major humanitarian settings. WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 154853 3

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2013). Assessment and management of conditions specifically related to stress: mhGAP intervention guide module (version 1.0). WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 150593 2

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2015). mhGAP humanitarian intervention guide (mhGAP-HIG): Clinical management of mental, neurological and substance use conditions in humanitarian emergencies. WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 154892 2

World Health Organization (2013). Building back better: Sustainable mental health care after emergencies. WHO Library. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN: 978 92 4 156457 1

Cultural Conflict Analysis

Cultural Conflict Analysis

Type of document           Research Paper

Number of pages 5

Subject area       Psychology

Academic Level Undergraduate

Style      APA

Number of sources/references 7

Order description:

Part 1 – *TOPIC* Transgender vs Anti-Transgender

Part 2 – Cultural Conflict

  1. Review and implement any recommendations from your instructor from Part 1: Transgender vs Anti-gender
  2. Thoroughly research and describe the conflict(s) chosen from Part 1:Transgender vs anti-transgender
  3. Write an analysis paper that Includes:

 The history of the conflict(s): Who, what, when, where, and how?

 This history of the conflict(s) in respect to your selected opposing cultural groups.

 The impact the conflict(s) has had on the selected opposing cultural groups.

 Compare the conflict from the perspective of the two opposing cultural groups

  1. • Anti-transgender violence and harassment.

o             Harm to one self. (suicide)

o             Getting abused by others

  1. • Religion against being transgender.

o             Most religions will not allow this to happen. Ie. Catholics, muslims, Christians, ect.

 Discuss how emotion, motivation, and socialization of the opposing cultural

groups, contribute to the social conflict(s).

 Include specific examples of how the social perception, cognition, and interaction

of the opposing cultural groups contributes to the social conflicts’ existence.

 Demonstrate critical-thinking-skills by evaluating the cause and realistic options

to resolve the conflict.

 Elaborate on how your worldview/faith and having a multicultural awareness

impacts your perception of the conflict and your approach to resolving it.

  1. Submit your paper.

Cultural Conflict Analysis paper describing the conflict(s) from Part 1: Cultural Groups

Selection and addressing all topics listed in the assignment

 Specific formatting – APA formatting.

 Title page

 Reference page

 5 Pages

 Minimum of 5 sources, 3 must be scholarly sources.

 Submission will be checked for plagiarism

The Tutor approved for the transgender topics that I have listed in the details
• Anti-transgender violence and harassment.
o Harm to one self. (suicide)
o Getting abused by others
2. • Religion against being transgender.
o Most religions will not allow this to happen. Ie. Catholics, muslims, Christians, ect.

Just need to follow instructions after the part 1