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Number of sources: 3 Every individual has the right to decide freely and responsibly – without discrimination, coercion and violence – the number, spacing and timing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health
Page 141 – Read and analyze “The Medieval Romance and the Code of Courtly Love.” Please describe a modern romance story, whether a film or a book, that has the elements discussed and compare/contrast the two: Modern vs. Medieval.
Page 121 – the “Spread of Buddhism.” Why do you think Buddhist scribes felt it was important to compile stories of Buddha’s birth and sayings even though Buddha himself did not write anything down himself? What do you think might have happened had they not made the decision to do so?
Goal: Increase the quality, availability, and effectiveness of educational and community-based programs designed to prevent disease and injury, improve health, and enhance quality of life.
Objective: ECBP-10 Increase the number of community-based organizations including local health departments, tribal health services, nongovernmental organizations, and state agencies) providing population-based primary prevention services in the following areas:
ECBP 10.8 Nutrition
Baseline: 86.1% of community-based organizations (including local health departments, tribal health services, non governmental organizations, and state agencies) provided population-based primary prevention services in nutrition in 2008.
Target-setting method: 105 improvement.
Data source: National Profile of Local Health Departments (NACCHO Profile), National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO)
ECBP 10.9 Physical Activity
Baseline: 80.5% of community-based organizations
(including local health departments, tribal health services. nongovernmental organizations, and state agencies) provided population-based primary prevention services inphysical activity in 2008
Target-setting method: 10% improvement.
Source: Data are from National Profile of Local Health Departments (NACCHO Profile), National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO),
Note: Other areas covered by this objective include: 10.1 Injury, 10.2 Violence. 10.3 Mental Itiness, 10.4 Tobacco Use, 10.5 Substance Abuse. 10.6 Unintended Pregnancy, and 10.7 Chronic Diseases Programs.
For Further Thought
If you had the opportunity to write one more objective to deal with the implementation of health promotion programs for use in Healthy People 2020, what would it be? What is your rationale for selecting such an objective?
Source US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2016) earthy People 2020 Available at https//www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics objectives/topic/educational-and-community-batud-programm
a good model for developing goals and objectives for a new program. In fact, these goals and objectives can be adapted for use in most community and public health promotion programs.
Creating an Intervention That Considers the Peculiarities of the Setting
The next step in the program planning process is to design activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and, in the process, achieve the program goals. These activities are collectively referred to as an intervention, or treatment. This intervention or treatment is the planned actions designed to prevent disease or injury or promote health in the priority population.
The number of activities in an intervention may be many or only a few. Although no minimum number has been established, it has been shown that multiple activities are often more effective than a single activity. For example, if the planners wanted to change the attitudes of community members toward a new landfill, they would have a greater chance of doing so by distributing pamphlets door to door, writing articles for the local newspaper, and speaking to local service groups, than by performing any one of these activities by itself. In other words, the size and amount of intervention are important in health promotion programming. Few people change an attitude or behavior based on a single exposure, instead, multiple exposures are generally needed to create change. It stands to reason that “hitting” the priority population from several angles or through multiple channels should increase the chances of making an impact.
Two terms that relate to the size and amount of an intervention are multiplicity and dose. Multiplicity refers to the number of components or activities that make up the intervention, while dose refers to the number of program units delivered. Thus, if an intervention has two activities-say, an educational workshop and the release of a public service announcement via social networking sites-they define multiplicity, while the number of times each of the activities is presented defines the dose
The actual creation of the intervention should begin by asking and answering of questions. The first two are: What needs to change? and, Where is change needed? The answers to these questions come from the needs assessment and the resulting goals and cha tives. The third question is: At what level of prevention (Le., primary, secondary, or tertiary wa the program be aimed? The approach taken to a primary prevention need, that is, preveling has existed for a while. The fourth question asks: At what level of anagng a problem before it begins, would be different from a tertiary prevention need of n after it has e problem to be focused? The various levels of influence (.e., intrapersonal, i the intervention the inter The vario end will interpersonal institutional or organizational, community, public policy, physical environment, and cu that were presented earlier in this chapter as part of the socio-ecological approach need to be considered. These levels provide the planners with a framework from which to think cons how they will “attack” the needs of the priority population. For example, if the goal of a pro gram is to reduce the prevalence of smoking in a community, the intervention could attaq the problem by focusing the intervention on individuals through one-on-one counseling va groups by offering smoking cessation classes, by trying to change policy by enacting a state law prohibiting smoking in public places, or by attacking the problem using more than one u these strategies.
The fifth question asks: Has an effective intervention strategy to deal with the focus of the problem already been created? “In other words, what does the evidence show about the effective ness of various interventions to deal with the problem that the program is to address?” Thre sources of guidance for selecting intervention strategies-best practices, best experiences and best processes. Best practices refers to recommendations for an intervention, based critical review of multiple research and evaluation studies that substantiate the efficacy of the intervention in the populations and circumstances in which the studies were done, if not s effectiveness in other populations and situations where it might be implemented. Examples al best practices related to health promotion programs are provided in The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health, also know as The Community Guide (see Box 5.3 3 for other sources of evidence).
When best best practice recommendations are not available for use, planners need to look for information on best experiences. Best experience intervention strategies are those of prior or existing programs that have not gone through the critical research and evaluation studies and that fall short of best practice criteria but nonetheless show promise in being effective. Best experiences can often be found by networking with others professionals and by reviewing the literature
If neither best practices nor best experiences are available to planners, then the third source of guidance for selecting an intervention strategy is using best processes. Best processes intervention strategies are original interventions that the planners create based on their knowledge and skills of good planning processes including the involvement of those in the priority pope lation and the theories and models used to change behaviors, such as Social Cognitive Theory or the Transtheoretical Model of Change.”
BOX 5.3 Sources of Evidence
The Campbell Collaboration
http://www.campbelicollaboration.org/ Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; University of York
http://www.york.ac.uk/crd/ The Cochrane Collaboration
Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
Health Evidence. McMaster University, Canada http://healthevidence.org
National Cancer Institute. Research-tested intervention Programs (RTIPs)
http://rtips.cancer.gov/rtips/index/do Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, National
Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices http://nrepp samhsa.gov
Once that it is known whether best practices, best experiences, or best processes will be used three more questions need to be asked. The sixth question asks: Is the intervention an appropriate fit for the priority population? In other words, does the planned intervention meet the specific characteristics of the priority population such as the educational level, development total stages, or the specific cultural characteristics of the people being served?
The seventh question that needs to be asked i Are the resources available to implement the intervention selected? Planners need to evaluate the amount of money, time, personnel,and/or space that is needed to carry out the various interventions and make a determination if such resources are available to implement the intervention.
The eighth, and final, question that needs to be asked is: Would it be better to use an intervention that consists of a single strategy or one that is made up of multiple strategies? A single strategy would probably be less expensive and time consuming, but multiple strategies would probably have a greater chance for change in the priority population.
Implementing the Intervention
The moment of truth is when the intervention is implemented. Implementation is the actual carrying out or putting into practice the activity or activities that make up the intervention. More formally, implementation has been defined as “the act of converting planning, goals, and objectives into action through administrative structure, management activities, policies. procedures, regulations, and organizational actions of new programs.
To ensure a smooth-flowing implementation of the intervention, it is wise to pilot test it at least once and sometimes more. A pilot test is a trial run. It is when the intervention is presented to just a few individuals who are either from the intended priority population or from a very similar population. For example, if the intervention is being developed for fifth graders in a particular school, it might be pilot tested on fifth graders with similar educational backgrounds and demographic characteristics but from a different school.
The purpose of pilot testing an intervention is to determine whether there are any problems with it. Some of the more common problems that pop up are those dealing with the design or delivery of the intervention: however, any part of it could be flawed. For example, it could be determined during pilot testing that there is a lack of resources to carry out the intervention as planned or that those implementing the intervention need more training. When minor flaws are detected and corrected easily, the intervention is then ready for full implementation. However, if a major problem surfaces-one that requires much time and many resources to correct-it is recommended that the intervention be pilot tested again with the improvements in place before implementation.
An integral part of the piloting process is collecting feedback from those in the pilot group. By surveying the pilot group, planners can identify popular and unpopular aspects of the intervention. how the intervention might be changed or improved, and whether the program activities were effective. This information can be useful in fine-tuning this intervention or in developing future programs.
Once the intervention has been pilot tested and corrected as necessary, it is ready to be disseminated and implemented. If the planned program is being implemented with a large i priority population and there is a lot at stake with the implementation, it is advisable that the intervention be implemented gradually rather than all at once. One way of doing so is by phasing in the intervention. Phasing in refers to a step-by-step implementation in which the intervention is introduced first to smaller groups instead of the entire priority population. Common criteria used for selecting participating groups for phasing in include participant ability, number of participants, program offerings, and program location.²
The following is an example of phasing in by location. Assume that a local health department wants to provide smoking cessation programs for all the smokers in the community (priority population). Instead of initiating one big intervention for all, planners could divide the priority population by residence location. Facilitators would begin implementation by offering the smoking cessation classes on the south side of town during the first month. During the second month, they would continue the classes on the south side and begin implementation on the west side of town. They would continue to implement this intervention until all sections of the town were included.
The purpose of this assignment is to identify a clinical problem/issue in your practice setting (ICU) that can compromise patient safety. You will use this problem/issue for Written Assignments 1, 2, and 3 in this course. Examples of a clinical problem/issue include lack of teamwork, problems or issues related to staffing, patient safety, failure to meet practice standards, communication, medication errors, and so on.
Avoid using any identifiers such as agency, employee, and/or patient names.
Write a 500- to 825-word scholarly paper (2 to 3 pages, not including the title and reference pages) that contains the following:
Introduction: Provide a brief introduction including a description of the clinical problem/issue that you have identified.
Literature Review to Support Your Introduction: Use a NJ State Library search interface such as OVID, ProQuest, or EBSCOhost to identify at least two articles to support your description of the problem. Apply the information from the sources to your identified issue/problem. What is the cause? What is the prevalence? Who does it affect? What is the cost? Discuss the impact on patient outcomes when this issue/problem exists.
Conclusion: Conclude your paper and summarize your clinical problem/issue and related literature review.
historical topic or event 1880-present day – African Americans, woman, the social effects of a military conflict, slavery and/or indentured servitude, colonization, Manifest Destiny, the Red Scares, labor and unions
Course Research Paper Guidelines
The Subject of this paper is to be over an event, a group of people,or a topic that pertains to this course.I end up getting a brief blow by blow of the war that does not qualify as a historical research paper. The student can choose any other topic that interested them as long as it is within the time frame we cover in class. The point of this paper is to make you somewhat of an entry level expert on this particular topic. Some examples of subjects could be African Americans, woman, the social effects of a military conflict, slavery and/or indentured servitude, colonization, Manifest Destiny, the Red Scares, labor and unions, the west etc.
Required Text and Sources:
To write this research paper the student will need to use at least one secondary source. The book is a secondary source so the students will be able to write the entire paper only using the text book. With that said, the student is able to pull information from outside materials. This includes both primary and secondary sources. The source, however, must be scholarly and legitimate. If in doubt, please do not hesitate to ask me. No Wikipedia!
Length and Structure:
This paper is to be four to six double spaced pages long. The paper should be written in size 12 Times New Roman font. The paper is to have one-inch margins, and the page length does not include notes or bibliography. The paper cannot be any longer than six pages.
All historical works include a thesis statement as all texts are making an argument. As this is a history paper a thesis statement is required. The thesis statement is the argument that your paper is making, and should be present in the introductory paragraph/s. The main body of the essay should reinforce your argument or your thesis statement.
The essay should be broken up into three distinct sections. The first section is comprised of your introduction, which includes your thesis statement. The second section should contain your body paragraphs that reinforce your thesis statement. The third section is your conclusion where you bring it all together.
The essay must be turned in both in class and online through the plagiarism checker. This is to ensure that the essay is the students own original work, and not simply copied and pasted from a website. If the report comes back from the plagiarism checker that the student did plagiarize then the student will receive a grade of zero and undergo the consequence of academic dishonesty as per the institution’s guidelines. If the student does not upload their paper to Turnitin they will automatically receive a zero.
This research paper will be written in the Chicago Style. The Chicago Style is the style used by historians, and since this is a history paper Chicago Style is required. Below are examples of how to cite various sources in the Chicago Style. If the student fails to use Chicago style citation it is an automatic 20 points off even if they cite MLA.
Authors First Name Last Name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publishers Name, Date of Publication), Page Numbers.
James Oaks, Et Al, Of the People: A History of the United States to 1877 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 133-134.
Et Al is only used if the book has more than two authors
*** If you use the same book more than once you do not have to use this long citation after the first time citing the book. *** example below:
Author’s Last Name, Page Number(s)
Oaks, Et Al, 276-277
Authors First Name Last Name, “Title of Journal Article,” Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): Page Numbers.
Pramod K. Nayer, “Marvelous Excesses: English Travel Writing and India, 1680-1727,” Journal of British Studies 44, No. 2 (April 2005): 213.
Go to References then click on AB1 insert footnote
It will automatically place a number where your cursor is and drop you to the bottom of the page. The bottom of the page is where you will type your citation. DO NOT USE A CITATION GENERATOR!
If you use Google Docs:
Place the cursor at the end of your sentence or wherever you want the citation.
Go to insert then footnote
It will automatically place a number where your cursor is and drop you to the bottom of the page. The bottom of the page is where you will type your citation. DO NOT USE A CITATION GENERATOR!
If you use Google Docs make sure that you download your paper as a word document. So, go to file then click on download as Microsoft word. It’s that simple. You must do this before you attempt to upload your paper to Turnitin but ONLY if you use Google Docs.
To turn your paper in to Turnitin just click on the research paper tab if you are a blackboard user at TCC or go to assignments and then click on research paper if you are a Canvas user at Collin College then follow the steps to upload the paper.
JSTOR is a very helpful place to go to find a lot of sources for almost any topic. They are journal articles. How to access JSTOR:
Sign into tccd.edu and go all the way down to the bottom of the page and click on libraries
TCC article databases click down arrow and go to JSTOR
Type a subject ie: women in the 1920s
sign into collin.edu and go to cougar web login
at the top left click on libraries
go to find articles in databases and click on the letter J
then click on JSTOR and search a topic ie: 19th century Irish immigration
In Discussion Forum 6, post your response to the following discussion question. Reply to at least two classmates’ responses by the date indicated in the Course Calendar. Your post should be 250 to 350 words.
After reading the information from the World Health Organization, go to a NJ State Library search interface such as CINAHL, ProQuest, or EBSCOhost and search for an article on patient safety in another country. Write a brief summary of the problem, including why it is a problem and what, if anything, is being done to alleviate it. How does the problem affect nursing? What are some possible solutions that could involve nurses? [MO 3.1]
The impact of cotton intensification in Central Asia
Work type: Research paper
Pages: 6 pages ( 1650 words, Double spaced
Academic level: Undergrad. (yrs 1-2)
Discipline: Natural Sciences
Title: APPENDIX 2 Optional Final Research Paper Instructions
Number of sources: 3
Optional Final Research Paper Instructions.
Lecturer advice write this assignment using this two topics.
1.) Discuss the impact of cotton intensification in Central Asia. And How and why was cotton put into this dry region?
2.) Discuss the multiple issues associated with the drying up of the Aral Sea, especially on the local Karakalpak population?
Optional Final Research Paper Instructions
Instructions for Optional Final Critical Analysis Research Paper:
This paper is designed around the idea that you will further develop and compare one of the general themes or case studies discussed in class (or will be discussed or is directly related to the themes covered during class). These topic is for you to choose, but some ideas can be an analysis such topics as resource extraction issues, desertification, hyper-urbanism, hyper-industrialization to the impacts of river damming, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, conflict minerals, etc. The analysis must be focused on the regions/countries discussed in class (Africa, Middle East, Central, Eastern, South, and Southeast Asia) and compared with one or more regions within our study area that have similar issues.
This paper is intended to be a critical analysis of the theme/topic you choose, so you must look at all sides of the debate surrounding the issue. Questions you can ask include: How has the definition of the theme/topic changed over time? How is the issue used or misused politically/socially/environmentally in our study areas? What are the various scales that are impacted? What evidence is found on-the-ground in support of, or contradictory to, your topic—positive and negative examples? Are there alternatives, lights at the end of the tunnel, or course corrections that you can identify through your research?
1) Six (minimum) to eight—or more–(complete) double-spaced pages with 1” or 1.25” margins and in Times New Roman 12pt font. Please number your pages. Include your name and the title/topic in the header of the first page or on a cover page. Do not include this in the body of the paper.
2) The paper must have a clear thesis statement (what you will look at specifically in the paper or the questions you will ask—basically, what you are going to prove or disprove in the paper) and a solid conclusion that ties the whole paper together.
3) The paper must be clear and grammatically correct.
No contractions and no colloquial statements
Remember, you cannot “know” what authors are thinking, you have to find references to it in their work
When using block quotes be sure to single space and “tab” the entire quote over once.
4) You must use (drawing important quotes into your text) a minimum of four outside, peer-reviewed, academic sources (journal articles and books), but try for more— and no internet sites.
Try to find sources younger than 20 years (1990s and 2000’s)
You need to incorporate the ideas of experts in the field into your paper whether you agree or disagree with them
Do not use quotes that state obvious points, rather use ones that are essential to furthering your argument.
What do not count as sources:
Internet sites (the internet may be used only to find online copies of journals through the library webpage).
Sources that are three pages or less.
Newspaper articles (unless prior approval is given)
Other introductory Environmental, Science or World Regional textbooks (can be used for further reading or clarification but are generally not interpretive).
5) Be sure to incorporate any outside sources covered in class when applicable. Vague mention with no references are not acceptable.
6) Include a Works Cited page at the end (see bibliography format below). This is a separate page and does not fulfill the 6-page minimum above.
7) Please upload a copy of the paper to the “Optional Extra Credit Research Paper” on the course’s Canvas site.
8) Everyone must discuss their topic with me well in advance of submitting the paper.
Possible Paper Format
Introductory paragraph (thesis statement or research questions)
Literature review section/paragraph (not always applicable, but a discussion of how others have approached your topic in the past)
Analysis paragraphs (your discussion of the topic using a combination of original sources, scholarly interpretation and your own interpretations)
Conclusions section/ paragraph (final summary of your discussion, review of your thesis and what you found)
Thesis statements should be clear, concise, and compelling. It should not only say what you are going to do in the paper but also how you are going to do it (what sources you will use, what questions you will ask, etc). An example is:
“. . . Drawing from the works of Jones (1987), Smith (2004), Inwood (1998) and Norseman (1976), I will examine the changing definition of desertification and how the process is reflected in the changing ecosystem of the Aral Sea region in Central Asia.”
Quoting in the paper:
Use of block quotes to be at a minimum (no more than two or three block quotes of 4-5 lines).
Block quotes are used for quotes over four lines long and need to be separated from the text, single spaced, and tabbed over.
– If you use someone else’s exact words put them in “quotation marks” and cite them
– If you paraphrase (not exact words but their ideas are the same) cite the author and year with page numbers when possible.
Word of advice: when in doubt, include a citation. Using someone else’s words or unique ideas without citation is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade (“History repeats itself” does not need a citation).
Parenthetical citation: an exact quote is cited with “quotation marks” and the author, year, and page numbers are given: (Sourvinou-Inwood 1998 pg 204).
Endnotes are fine but do not count to satisfy paper length requirements.
Be sure to alphabetize your bibliography. Any accepted style is fine as long as the author’s name, year, the title, place of publication, and publisher is present. I personally prefer the Chicago 14b style:
Smith, John. 2007. Conflicts Over Nature. Granville: Denison University Press.
For journal articles:
Smith, John. 2006. “Humans and the Environment” in Journal of Human-
Environment Interaction 26: 2, pp 123-165.
What I will look for (and reduce your grade if you do not include these points in light of those mentioned in 1) through 8) above):
Is the introduction clear and essential to the purpose of the paper (no stories)?
Is the thesis of the paper basic or advanced?
Is there a description what sources they will use or questions to be asked?
Use of scholarly sources:
Quotations from multiple pages from the outside sources
All authors quoted and cited
Use of citations to further the thesis
Do the works cited in the paper match those in the bibliography?
Complexity of the argument:
How well does the paper integrate the thesis?
Does the paper actually follow the thesis?
Are all sides of the issue investigated?
Is the discussion basic or does it go into the issues surrounding the question?
Clear and grammatically correct prose:
No colloquialisms or contractions
No wild assumptions or judgmental words
No misspellings and wrong words
Are the goals of the paper adequately fulfilled?
Does the conclusion wrap the paper up (good) or introduce new ideas (bad)?
Does the conclusion show that the author thought about the topic?