“ 1. background
“ 5/1966-10/1976, about ten years. Mao’s regime initiated this mass movement.
“ reject the traditional Chinese cultural heritage and capitalist ideology while adopting the œmao Zedong thought as the guiding principle.
“ class struggle-proletariats against its enemies (potential capitalists and reminisce of the feudal past)
“ the youth were mobilized by the mao’s ideology. chairman mao inspected red guards Tiananmen square.
2). Red guards and violence
“ “ destroy the old world, establish the new world., buring temple statues
“ famine and poverty: lack of food
“ state penetration into local communities
“ impact on gender relations
Why Rural Reform?
After intense political stuggle on the top level, the reformers gained control. Deng Xiaoping came to power and the new regime initiated the economic reforms. A fundamental shift of the focus of the new reform government: from meaningless ideological struggle to economic production. Began in 1978.
The Chinese path: insisted on the socialist system and the communist party leadership, one party rule; but reform its economic system. ( its Chinese path cause we weren’t going through what Western were experiencing but we still keep the socialist regime and would be a mixed economy structure ( capital and socal), Germany and Japan invest in China first. lots of foreign company jointed with state to publicize the product.) Rural population at that time was 80 % so Deng started with developing and invest in countryside to feed up major people.
improve production efficiency and economic performance by changing the old institutional bases of the economy
from centrally planned economy to a market based mixed economy
Opening Chinese society to the outside world. Foreign trade and investment.
General trend : Move away from direct state control towards more flexible, market-oriented agricultural production
production responsibility system
land was allocated to individual peasant households. limited to use right, not ownership. must sell certain amount of grain to the state at a fixed price to fulfill the quota required by the government, pay tax, and contribute to the collective. but have right to deal with the rest- sell on the market, self-consuption. greater freedom in production and consumption
diversification and rural industry
Villages and townships began to engage in a wide varity of entrepreneurial activities to generate incomes.
zengbu village ( Guangdong provice):
Qiaolou village (Sichuan province)
Specialization of Households and commercialization
Household specialize in producing in different field such as ingredients, food supply and etc.
Social and cultural impact
1. Emerging Inequality œ to get rich is glorious
2. power dynamics :
brigade “ village
3. social structure
4.revival of religious activities
Deng: tried to let few people get rich and they will contribute to society and people later. So few people started to get rich and the income differences immerge in people.
Regional inequality: richer boundaries are mostly near the coast. Since 1990, they implement village election. Villages allowed to vote for their candidate. Nowadays, they don’t care if you are party members, but the promise of prosperity in agriculture production. In countryside, the religious practices were also allowed by the villagers.