1. Locate a research article using the following research design Quasi-Experimental. The topic of research is gun violence in the adolescent population (it could be risk reduction, prevention measures, school based clinics, etc, relate it to nursing)Make sure to post the article!
2. Post a brief abstract of the article in your own words, not the authors abstract..
3. Use the following Preliminary questions to ask in a critical appraisal of research literature as a guideline. Be somewhat brief. Lastly, in a few sentences summarize with what you believe are the key positives and negatives of the study.
3. Post what area seems the most murky to you and what kind of input you would find helpful.
Why was the study done? Is this a significant problem (does it answer the So what? question)? What gap in current knowledge are the researchers trying to fill?
What is the theoretical basis for this study? It most likely won’t be stated and Melnyk doesn’t discuss theory, but theory is the rationale for understanding the reasons there are connections among the study variables and how we will apply results.
Participants: What were the demographic variables (e.g. age, gender, SES)? How were participants selected? Did this method of selecting participants seem logical? What is the sample size? Was it large enough to detect a difference between groups if there is indeed a difference (called power)?
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Were the measurements of variables valid and reliable? (Instrument validity and reliability) Were the variables measured precisely and consistently? Were the researchers measuring what they said they were measuring (e.g. were they measuring fatigue when they thought they were measuring stress? Were they measuring state or trait anxiety)?
How were the data analyzed? Were the correct statistical tests used? Were the correct statistical tests used? How do you know? Give examples
Were there untoward events during the conduct of the study? Think Internal and external validity and reliability! For example: was the participant drop out rate high (mortality)? Was the questionnaire so long that there was a risk of response set bias (reliability)? V & R threats are discussed in the review section below. Are the measurements of the major variables valid and reliable? Were data collection methods consistent For example all interviews took place in person or by phone or all questionnaires took about 20 to 25 minutes to complete? Were data collected consistently (e.g. all the data collectors gave participants the same instructions).
Were there any problems with missing data? For example: was every question completed by all participants. Did the researchers explain if missing data were a problem? There usually is some missing data (remember there is no perfect study!)..so was it crucial information
MAX-MIN-CON Principle: In quantitative studies, the goal is to maximize the experimental variance, minimize the error variance, and control the extraneous variance. Variance refers to the variability in the DV.
How do the results fit with previous research in the area? What do these results add to our understanding? If there were inconsistencies in findings were the researchers able to provide some logical explanations (use common sense!)
What does this research mean for clinical practice? Is applicability practical? Are results clinically significant? There can be statistical significance, but you may determine it is not statistically significant. However..it can’t go the other way! If results are not statistically significant you can’t say..so what.. I think it is clinically significant!
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