1. Write a paragraph explaining why a œtechnology-based water pollution-

1. Write a paragraph explaining why a œtechnology-based water pollution-control standard might not be the most economically efficient (or cost-effective) way to achieve a given level of reduction in water pollution.

2. Discuss the different point sources and nonpoint sources for water pollution. Explain why it has been more difficult to reduce the nonpoint sources. Be specific about what types of nonpoint sources are contributors to water pollution.

3. In the Taking Sides articles, Milton Friedman argued that indeed profits are the only business of business. Explain what that might mean for controlling environmental pollution. Without government regulation, when would you expect firms to engage in activities that help the environment? Give specific examples.

4. Compare the economic efficiency and the safety standards. Use reducing waste (both human and animal waste) runoff into the Wabash River as an example.

5. Compare the Biocentric point of view (as expressed in Stone’s idea that trees should have standing) to one of the anthropocentric standards (economic efficiency or safety or sustainability).

Economics and the Environment

See powerpoint slides œIntroduction to Environmental Economics

positive and negative externalities

Field & Field, Ch. 1 What is Environmental Economics?

Importance of incentives

Field & Field, Ch. 2 The Economy and the Environment

p. 33-41 Important sections on Terminology and Types of Pollutants

Introduction to Ethical and Social Responsibility issues in Environmental Economics

See powerpoint slides œGoodstein, Ch. 2, Ethics and Economics

Goodstein, Eban S. Ch. 2, Ethics and Economics

Utility and Utilitarianism (ethical foundation of economics; anthropocentric ethical basis)

Efficiency, Safety, and Sustainability Standards

Should Trees Have Standing? Christopher D. Stone (1972), (this is Biocentric point of view)

œAre Profits the Only Business of Business? from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Economic Issues (know who Milton Friedman is and which is his position)

Tragedy of the Commons

Hardin, Garrett. œThe Tragedy of the Commons. Science, Dec. 13, 1968, pp. 1243-58.

Elinor Ostrom et al. œRevisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges Science, Apr. 9, 1999, pp. 278-282.

Environmental Policy on water in the United States

Field & Field, Ch. 14, Federal Water Pollution-Control Policy

Clean Water Act

Types of water pollutants: conventional, nonconventional, toxic, point sources, nonpoint sources, continuous, episodic, persistent, degradable

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Technology based effluent standards

Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Subsidy program

Fracking and groundwater pollution

Oil spills

Nonpoint-source water pollution control

Movie: ˜Til the River Runs Clear (on Hudson River)

Local Wabash River issues


City of Terre Haute website on Combined Sewer Overflows and the Terre Haute plan: http://www.terrehautecleanwater.com/CSO/home2.html

-Tribune Star article on sewage treatment plans

Documentary on the Wabash River: http://video.wfyi.org/video/2306603665/