Literature Review; Data Collection

Write a couple of sentences to introduce the topic you chose.

Reference: This should be so accurate that the reader can go directly from the abstract to the original article. Give a complete APA style reference.

Kind of research: Identify the kind of research, i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, observational (descriptive, case study, historical, etc.). Although the article may not be a clear example of one of these, it can usually be classified under one of these.

Purpose: Sometimes the purpose is stated as an aim, an objective, or a goal. At other times, it is incorporated in a statement of a problem, leaving the reader to infer the purpose has a stated problem, a purpose, or both. In case the purpose is inferred, you may state it in your own words.

Design: If the article is an experimental or quasi-experimental research, it is usually possible to identify the design of the study. Descriptive and historical research articles may or may not have a design that can be categorized. Try to identify the design for each article. Comment if you are unable to determine the design, and explain why.

Participants: The term œparticipant refers to the sample studied. Under this heading you should include a description of ages, sexes, socio-economic status, school grade, mental level, number, and/or any other demographic characteristics given in the article to describe the particular sample used in the study.

Procedure: Sometimes the procedure is referred to as the œmethod and includes a description of control techniques, measuring devices, materials used and ways of proceeding, in attempting to achieve the purpose or purposes of the study. Are measures of validity and reliability reported by the author? If so, what measures were used? When such are not reported it should be so stated.


Variables: Identify the variables in the study. Identify the independent and dependent variables. The independent variables are usually the cause, stimulus, antecedent treatment or the identified groups (males-females; young couples, middle aged couples, mature couples; Baptist, Catholics, Methodists, Mormans; upper class, middle class, lower class; etc.) whereas the dependent variable is usually the effect, response, or consequence.

Level of Measurement (data): Although this is often unclear, you should try to identify the level of measurement such as nominal, ordinal, interval, and/or ratio.

Instrumentation: The names of the instruments (if any) used in the study should be listed. This would include such things as: The Maryland Parent Attitude Survey (MPAS), the Locke-Wallas Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Test (TJTT), or other tests named in the article.

Sample: Sample refers to whether the sample(s) is related (dependent) or non-related (independent). Related sample usually means that the different scores represent the same individuals or logically connected individuals (spouses, daughters, sons, mothers, fathers, etc.) whereas independent samples refer to different groups.

Sampling Technique: Sampling technique refers to such things as random sampling, cluster sampling, selected sampling, stratified sampling, time sampling, volunteers, solicited, snowball sampling, intact groups, etc.

Statistical Tests: List the statistical tests used in the article; examples might be chi square (x2), t-test, f-test, Mann-Whitney, etc.

Results or Findings: These should be confined to actual data reported by the author.

Conclusions: Conclusions are the generalizations that the author believes the results or findings justify. These should be expressed in the language of the author.