In Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order, James Ferguson argued that scientific and economistic language ?demoralizes? the issue economic development in Africa. For Ferguson development is not just about money, it also has complex moral and social dimensions. For many people in developing countries economic development is about crossing the gulf, gaining recognition, participation, and membership. What did Ferguson mean by recognition? What kind of participation? Membership in what? Use examples from the reading such as the Zambian online journal Chrysalis, mimicry of the Hauka movement, and the letter drafted by two Guinean teenagers that tried to reach Europe in the landing gear of an airplane, to explore what Ferguson meant by participation and membership.