Anatomy and physiology Academic Essay – Write My School Essay

Anatomy and physiology

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1.    The lacrimal apparatus is associated with _____________.

A.    processing visual information
B.    tear production
C.    maintaining retinal health
D.    securing the conjunctiva to the eye

2.    What 3 cranial nerves control the extraocular muscles

A.    3, 4, 6
B.    2, 3, 4
C.    2, 3, 6
D.    3, 4, 5

3.    The fibrous tunic of the eye includes all of the structures except ____________.

A.    sclera
B.    conjunctiva
C.    cornea
D.    all of these are part of the fibrous tunic

4.    The ciliary ganglion attaches to the lens by way of ______________ and will change the _______________ of the lens when stimulated.

A.    suspensory ligaments, angle
B.    reticular fibers, shape
C.    sharpey’s fibers, angle
D.    suspenory ligaments, shape

5.    The eye is divided into anterior and posterior segments by _______________.

A.    retina
B.    lens
C.    iris
D.    choroid

6.    The retina contains all of the following structures except ________________

A.    rods
B.    cones
C.    ganglionic cells
D.    bipolar cells
E.    All of these may be found in the retina

7.    Cones require _______light to be active and are responsible for ____________ vision

A.    more light, night
B.    less light, color
C.    more light, color
D.    less light, night

8.    The only area without visual receptors in/on the retina is the

A.    macula lutea
B.    macula densa
C.    fovea centralis
D.    optic disc

9.    What disease is associated with irregular pressures of the aqueous humour?

A.    retinitis pigmentosa
B.    glaucoma
C.    night blindness
D.    color blindness

10.    Areas of clouding of the lens or the cornea, which frequently occur with aging, are known as ____________________.

A.    opacities
B.    macular deterioration
C.    cataracts
D.    All of these refer to areas of clouding

11.    How many times is the light bent as it enters the eye and prior to it contacting receptors on the retina?

A.    2
B.    3
C.    4
D.    5

12.    The ____________________shape of the lens focuses light on a single point

A.    convex
B.    concave
C.    varies with individual

13.    The eyes are best suited for ____________________ vision as the relaxed muscles allow the pupil to be __________________.

A.    distant, dilated
B.    distant, constricted
C.    near, dilated
D.    near, constricted

14.    In accommodation, what action do the eyes demonstrate?

A.    They converge on far objects
B.    They converge on near objects
C.    Pupils dilate with objects getting closer
D.    None of these phenomena occur in accommodation

15.    How many pigments do rods have?

A.    1
B.    2
C.    3
D.    4

16.    Night blindness frequently is associated with a deficiency of which Vitamin?

A.    A
B.    D
C.    C
D.    K

17.    Cones are ________________ numerous and found _______________ on the retina

A.    more, periphery
B.    more, centrally
C.    less, periphery
D.    less, centrally

18.    Olfaction, sense of smell, is conducted by which cranial nerve?

A.    1
B.    2
C.    5
D.    7

19.    The olfactory sensors are ________________ receptors

A.    chemo
B.    photo
C.    mechanical
D.    noci

20.    Approximately how many odors are human beings able to sense?

A.    100,000
B.    10,000
C.    1,000,0000
D.    10,000,000

21.    The phenomena that permits strong odors to not be as noticeable over time is known as _______________.

A.    olfactory overload
B.    anoso-repolarization
C.    olfactory adaptation
D.    olfactory discrimation

22.    The major taste sensations are __________________

A.    sweet
B.    sour
C.    bitter
D.    salty
E.    All of these are included.

23.    Umami, an additional taste, is known to be triggered by what biochemical components

A.    certain fats
B.    certain carbohydrates
C.    certain amino acids
D.    certain nucleotides

24.    According to the lecture, what percentage of taste does smell contribute to?

A.    20
B.    40
C.    60
D.    80

25.    Auditory stimuli trigger what type of receptors in the middle ear

A.    mechanical
B.    photo
C.    noci
D.    chemical
E.    None of these is correct

26.    What muscle(s) are contracted that permit us to adapt to hearing loud sounds and act on the small bones in the middle ear?

A.    stapedius
B.    tensor tympani
C.    neither
D.    both

27.    The ________________ is associated with vestibular disorders

A.    semi-circular canals
B.    cochlea
C.    endo-lymphatic duct
D.    mastoid air sac

28.    Hair cells in the auditory chamber are embedded in the __________________.

A.    basilar membrane
B.    tectorial membrane
C.    basement membrane
D.    auditory membrane

29.    The auditiory cells move with sound as the ___________________ moves or vibrates.

A.    basilar membrane
B.    utricular membrane
C.    tectorial membrane
D.    auditory membrane

30.    Severe hearing loss, as per lecture, occurs with prolonger exposure to sound over _________decibels

A.    80
B.    90
C.    100
D.    110

31.    Endocrine hormones are defined by ___________________

A.    that they are powerful proteins
B.    that they are released directly into the bloodstream
C.    they travel by ducts to target organs
D.    they are produced by small glandular structures

32.    Endocrine hormones are classified by their chemical components.  All steroidal hormones are made from one common biochemical. That chemical is ____________.

A.    Cortisone
B.    Vitamin A
C.    Cholesterol
D.    Albumin

33.    Water-soluble hormones act on the cells _________________, utilizing _______________messenger systems. (Indirect mechanisms do not enter cells)

A.    indirectly, primary
B.    indirectly, secondary
C.    directly, primary
D.    directly, secondary

34.    Lipid- soluble endocrine hormones contact receptors in the ___________________.

A.    cytoplasm of the target cell
B.    plasma membrane
C.    nuclear membrane
D.    ribosome

35.    Lipid soluble hormones work through ________________

A.    G-protein receptors
B.    Activating transcription/translation
C.    Second messengers like Cyclic AMP
D.    Voltage gated channels

36.    Water- soluble hormones work through _________________

A.    G – protein receptors
B.    Transcription/translation
C.    Second messengers like cyclic AMP
D.    A and C
E.    None of these is correct

37.    An example of neural stimuli impacting the endocrine system would be __________.

A.    High ionic sodium levels triggering the hypothalamus to release ADH
B.    Testosterone release triggered by LH release
C.    A near death experience triggering fight or flight response
D.    A carbohydrate loaded meal leading to profound insulin release

38.    The posterior pituitary ( part of the hypothalamus) releases which of these hormones

A.    ADH
B.    Oxytocin
C.    Releasing Hormones
D.    A and B
E.    A,B and C

39.    ADH has what effect on the kidney tubules?

A.    increased loss of water to the Urine
B.    Increased Potassium in the urine
C.    Decreased volume of water in the urine
D.    Increased Sodium in the urine

40.    Which of these is not a hormone produced by the anterior (glandular) pituitary?

A.    Human Growth Hormone
B.    ACTH
C.    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
D.    Leptin
E.    Prolactin

41.    Which of the anterior pituitary hormones targets the widest range of cells?

A.    HGH
B.     ACTH
C.    TSH
D.    LH
E.    MH

42.    Which hormone triggers the production of estrogen and testosterone?

A.    Follicle Stimulating Hormone
B.    Leutinizing Hormone
C.    Gonadotropin Release Hormone
D.    Prolactin
E.    All of the above

43.    The condition associated with an insufficient production of ADH is known as

A.    Diabetes mellitus
B.    Diabetes insipidus
C.    Raynaud’s syndrome
D.    Addison’s disease

44.    The mineral required to complete the formation of T4 and T3, both active thyroid hormones, in the follicle of the thyroid gland, is ___________.

A.    Iron
B.    Magnesium
C.    Calcium
D.    Iodine

45.    Thyroid hormones affect the following cells except ____________?

A.    gonadal cells
B.    adrenal cortical cells
C.    pancreatic cells
D.    all of these are affected by thyroid hormones

46.    The outermost layer of the adrenal cortex produces aldosterone?  What effect does aldosterone have?

A.    increased urine volume
B.    decreased blood pressure
C.    increased sodium retention by the kidney
D.    increased potassium in the intracellular fluid

47.    What chemical does the kidney produce that plays a pivotal role in the release of aldosterone?  The pathway was emphasized in lecture.

A.    angiotensin
B.    rennin
C.    aldosterone converting enzyme
D.    cortisol

48.    Where do women produce testosterones/androgens?

A.    a small amount secreted by the ovaries during stress
B.    the anterior pituitary lobules
C.    uterine glands prior to menstruation
D.    the adrenal cortex
E.    none of these, women do not produce these hormones

49.    The pancreas islet cells produce what hormone(s)?

A.    secretin
B.    insulin
C.    glucagon
D.    B and C
E.    A,B and C

50.    Glucagon acts on what target organ and has what effect?

A.    all cells, lowers blood sugar
B.    all cells, raises blood sugar
C.    liver cells, lowers blood sugar
D.    liver cells, raises blood sugar

51.    Insulin acts on what target organ and has what effect?

A.    all cells, lowers blood sugar
B.    all cells, raises blood sugar
C.    liver cells, lowers blood sugar
D.    liver cells, raises blood sugar

52.    Type I diabetes indicates that the condition relates to ________________

A.    Excessive insulin production
B.    Failure in insulin production
C.    Inadequate receptors for insulin
D.    Excessive dietary carbohydrates

53.    Type 2 diabetes is likely do to ___________.

A.    excessive glucagon production
B.    high levels of faulty insulin
C.    problems with insulin receptors and their responses
D.    excessive ingestion of dietary lipids

54.    Sugar diabetes is characterized by ______________

A.    High levels of blood glucose and frequent urination
B.    Low levels of urine glucose and infrequent urination
C.    Hyperactivity and scant urine production
D.    Excessive ingestion of food and liquids with fluctuating blood sugar levels

55.    As a result of long term type 1 or 2 diabetes, what byproducts are formed that damage multiple organs and blood vessels?

A.    long chain fatty acids
B.    complex carbohydrates
C.    ketone bodies and keto acids
D.    glycosylated hemoglobins

56.    Type 1 and type 2 diabetics suffer from fatigue. This phenomena is due to ___?

A.    excessive blood glucose
B.    inadequate ATP production, intracellularly
C.    anti HGH activity of insulin
D.    none of these account for this phenomena

57.    The kidneys produce what hormone that acts on the bone marrow?

A.    rennin
B.    eryhropoeitin (EPO)
C.    angiotensinogen
D.    androgens

58.    A hormone produced by fat cells that impacts menstruation, as per lecture, is _________?

A.    adiposin
B.    leptin
C.    gonadotropin
D.    endometrin

59.    Excessive blood volume will cause the heart muscles to stretch.  This leads to the production of what agent that will increase urination.

A.    reduction of ADH secretion by the posterior pituitary
B.    lowered angiotensin production
C.    release of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
D.    all of these events occur

60.    Which gland plays a role in the development of specialized white blood cells that attack cancer cells?

A.    thyroid
B.    thymus
C.    kidney
D.    liver

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