A comparison and analysis of two works of art in the Museum of Modern Art. Academic Essay – Write My School Essay

HA 216 Prof. Ann Schoenfeld

Spring 2016

Term Paper Assignment

A comparison and analysis of two works of art in the Museum of Modern Art. Choose from six pairs for comparison, listed on the page 4. Research will be required.

Due in class any date up to April 29 (in 5 weeks). Emailed papers will not be accepted.


The purpose of this paper is to discuss in your own words the similarities and differences between two works regardingstyle,content,artisticintentionandhistoricalcontext. Your conclusions will be based on your own observations together with information that you have read about the artists and come to understand about their work.

In a comparison, consider in addition to stylistic elements, the works and the art historical movements or moments they represent in relation to each other, thinking about ways in which they are different or alike. The following points should be covered in your paper.

Begin your investigation with a careful viewing. Make notes of visual characteristics you see when you view the actual object. You may photograph any of these without a flash.

  1. Information to include in your paper that you learn in the museum:

A. IMPORTANT: Explain how the images are presented in the gallery. Where are they placed (easy to see, crowded, too high, too low, next to related artworks? are they well lit?, is it easy to circulate in the gallery, any place to rest, etc.?

B. Formal analysis:

Note the size, composition, balance, scale brushwork, use of line color,spatialdepthor surface treatment/texture. Where appropriate, discuss the variousmaterials used.

C. How do these technical and stylistic choices help create the overall expressive effect of the painting or sculpture. For instance is a viewer immediately aware of individual formal elements, is a viewer drawn into a narrative immediately? What impact, if any, do technique and stylistic choices have on the content? What do you think the artists were trying to communicate to the viewer? This can be general or specific.

  1. Research component:

Discuss the content and meaning, and how it is related to (conveyed by) the formal elements of the work. This is about getting to know the artist’s intentions where possible. What ideas motivated and preoccupied the artists? Were they reacting against (or, alternatively, influenced by) earlier artistic movements or contemporary events? You should consider the following questions: Did the artists have apoliticalorsocial goal in mind? Were they interested in any of these things:psychology, philosophy, current events, music, politics, religion, or science? Were new materials or figural distortions a particular concern? Were the works part of a series or related to other paintings/sculptures by the artist?

Did the works represent a change in the artists’ styles? How do the paintingstypifythe movements, if any, with which they are associated? How were the works interpreted and received by critics and the public? Have these opinions changed over time? This part of your paper must demonstrate anunderstandingofpublished information which you have used for your research.

Whenever possible, include statements by the artists themselves regarding their intentions and priorities, as well as responses by critics and historians. Be sure to footnote all direct quotes and original ideas taken from other authors. Above all, your paper must be written in your own words. Remember, I am interested in how you reason about the art and how you evaluate what you read. For further questions, consult Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art, N.Y.: Longman, 2009.


Relevant books are on reserve in the Pratt Library for you to use (in addition to your textbooks) while preparing your paper. Consult at least two books for each artist (they don’t have to be on reserve, but they should be current). These books contain information specifically related to the painting or sculpture about which you are writing and-or general information on the artist. Think about using general books on art formats and movements such as modern sculpture, Pop Art, etc. List the resources you use in your bibliography. Many students must use these resources, sodon’t procrastinate. Above all, do not deface, damage, or hide the books! If a promising reference is not at Pratt you should visit another library, such as the New York Public Library at 42nd St. & 5th Ave. nypl.org for information, including the catalogue. General textbook surveys are not acceptable. No Wikipedia.* I have already printed out the Wikipedia pages on each artist.

WRITING THE PAPER: begin with general summary statements (you basic thesis or argument) and then proceed with a detailed discussion of information supporting your introductory opinions, ending the paper with a conclusion. Be sure toitalicizeorunderline titles of art works.

Your paper needs to be at least five pages long, minus the footnotes or endnotes, a title page, and a bibliography on a separate page. Endnotes, the title page, and bibliography are not part of the page count. Papers must be typed and the pages securely fastened together. Be sure to double space, use a 12-point font and include margins no larger than one inch. Don’t forget to print/save a copy of your paper. This assignment is due in class April 29, 5 weeks from now, but you may turn in the paper any time before then. Late papers will not be accepted – no exceptions.


Start your research by looking up your artist on Oxford Art Online, available through Pratt Library website > Articles & Databases > Oxford Art Online. You may find useful references and a bibliography on that database.

In acknowledging sources there are a few rules to remember. In scholarship of any kind a distinction is made between common knowledge (facts) and ideas. However, when you are influenced by an interpretation of those facts, or an idea, you must reference the author and the book with an endnote. This is done by either quoting the original statement verbatim (with quotation marks around the passage cited, or by paraphrasing the author’s idea; then place a note number at the end of the sentence. You may cite the source at the bottom of the page (footnote) or the end of the paper (endnote).

In addition to endnotes or footnotes, at the end of your paper you should have a bibliography, which is a list of all books and articles, which you have consulted, even if you didn’t use some of their ideas directly. Organize your bibliography alphabetically according to the last name of the authors.

For bibliography and footnotes

Bibliography items are listed alphabetically at the end of the term paper.

Items referred to in the body of the paper use the Footnote. Every source that is quoted, paraphrased receives a footnote. Every source that receives a footnote is listed in the bibliography.

Choose one of these pairs after you’ve seen them online at the Museum of Modern Art website. Their general location in the museum is given here. Compare and contrast your pair of two paintings or sculptures.

1. Jackson Pollock, Shimmering Substance, 1946 Floor 3



Claude Monet, Agapanthus, 1914-1926 Floor 5


2. Jackson Pollock, Shimmering Substance, 1946 Floor 3



Joan MIro, Birth of the World, 1925 Floor 5


3. Jackson Pollock, One: Number 31, 1950, 1950 Floor 3



Lee Krasner, Untitled, 1949 Floor 5


4. Pablo Picasso, Girl Before a Mirror, 1932 Floor 5



Roy Lichtenstein, Girl With Ball 1961 Floor 5, near elevator


5. Louis Bourgeois, Quarantania, I, 1947-53, reassembled 1981 Floor 5



Alberto Giacometti, The Palace at 4:00 a.m., 1932 Floor 5


6. Jean (Hans) Art, Birds in an Aquarium, c. 1920 Floor 5



Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1928 Floor 5


HA 216 Spring 2016

BOOKS ON RESERVE FOR TERM PAPER RESEARCH (note: other books on these artists may be on reserve for other classes)

The books on reserve represent in many cases the tip of the iceberg. Find other sources in PrattCat.

Look up video resources in PrattCat too. More recent ones may include interviews, etc.

For Jean (Hans) Arp

Umlaud, Anne and Adrian Sudhalter, eds. Dada in the Collection of the Museum of Modern Art.

New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2008.

709.04062 M986D

Dickerman, Leah. Dada: Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, New York, Paris.

Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2005.

709.04062 D549

For Louise Bourgeois

Storr, Robert. Louise Bourgeois.

New York: Phaidon Press, 2003.

720.973 B772 S886 2003

Morris, Frances, editor. Louise Bourgeois.

New York: Rizzoli, 2008.

730.973 B772 L888 2008

For Constantin Brancusi

Bach, Friedrich Teja. Constantin Brancusi, 1876-1957.

Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1995.

730.9498 B816B

Chave, Anna. Constantin Brancusi: Shifting the Bases of Art.

New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

730.9498 B816C

Gimenez, Carmen and Matthew Gale, editors. Constantin Brancusi: The Essence of Things.

London: Tate Gallery, 2004.

730.9498 B816 C758 2004

For Alberto Giacometti

Klemm, Christian. Alberto Giacometti. New York: Museum of Modern Art; Zurich: Kunsthaus Zurich, 2001

730.9494 G429K

Schneider, Angela, editor. Alberto Giacometti: Sculpture, Paintings, Drawings.

730.9494 G429 A334 1994

For Lee Krasner

Wagner, Ann. Three artists (three women) : modernism and the art of Hesse, Krasner, and O’Keeffe. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

709.73 W132

Krasner/Pollock : A Working Relationship. New York: Grey Art Gallery, 1981.

759.1 K89G

Kleeblatt, Norman and Stephen Brown. From the Margins: Lee Krasner/Norman Lewis, 1945-1952. New York: Jewish Museum, 2014.

759. K89 K63 2014

For Roy Lichtenstein

Rondeau, James. Roy Lichtenstein: a Retrospective. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2012.

759.1 L699 R771 2012

Bader, Graham, editor. Roy Lichtenstein. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

759.1 L699 R888 2009

Bader, Graham. Hall of Mirrors: Roy Lichtenstein and the Face of Painting in the 1960s. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010

759.1 L699 B134 2010

Alloway, Lawrence. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Abbeville Press, 1983.

759.1 L701A

For Joan Miró

Rose, Barbara. Miró in America. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1982.

759.6 M676RO

Erben, Walter. Joan Miró, 1893-1983: The Man and His Work.

Hong Kong; Los Angeles: Taschen, 2008.

759.6 M676 E65 2008

Daniel, Marko and Matthew Gale, Editors. Joan Miró: The Ladder of Escape.

New York: Thames & Hudson, 2011.

759.6 M676 J62 2011

For Claude Monet

Monet in the 20th Century.

London: Royal Academy of Arts; Boston: Museum of Fine Arts; New Haven: Published in association with Yale University Press, 1998. 

759.4 M742TUCKE

House, John. Monet: Nature into Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986

759.4 M742HO

Orr, Lynn Federle. Monet: Late Paintings of Giverny From the Musée Marmottan.

New Orleans: New Orleans Museum of Art; San Francisco: Fine Art Museums of San Francisco in association with H.N. Abrams, 1994.

759.4 M742MU

For Pablo Picasso

Rubin, William, editor. Picasso and Portraiture : Representation and Transformation.

New York: Museum of Modern Art: 1996

759.4 P586Ru

Freeman, Judi. Picasso and the Weeping Women : The Years of Marie-Thérèse Walter & Dora Maar. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art; New York: Rizzoli, 1994.

759.4 P586 F855 1994

Cowling, Elizabeth and John Golding. Picasso: Sculptor/Painter.

London: Tate Galllery, 1994.

759.4 P586COW

For Jackson Pollock

Karmel, Pepe, editor. Jackson Pollock: Interviews, articles, and reviews. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1999.

759.1 P776JAC

Landau, Ellen G. Jackson Pollock. New York : Abrams, 1989.

759.1 P776L

Varnedoe, Kirk. Jackson Pollock. New York : The Museum of Modern Art, 1998.

759.1 P776V c.2

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